俗语有言,代码如诗;我也有言,代码如画!今天就和大家一起探讨下如何用python点烟花,让我们在工作之余可以随时用程序为自己放一场烟花秀。做一个这样有趣的小项目并不复杂,只需一点可视化技巧,100余行Python代码和程序库Tkinter,最后我们就能达到下面这个效果:

用python来一场烟花吧-赴京书生

如下图示,我们这里通过让画面上一个粒子分裂为X数量的粒子来模拟爆炸效果。粒子会发生“膨胀”,意思是它们会以恒速移动且相互之间的角度相等。这样就能让我们以一个向外膨胀的圆圈形式模拟出烟花绽放的画面。经过一定时间后,粒子会进入“自由落体”阶段,也就是由于重力因素它们开始坠落到地面,仿若绽放后熄灭的烟花。

用python来一场烟花吧-赴京书生

下面直接上代码:

import tkinter as tk
from PIL import Image, ImageTk
from time import time, sleep
from random import choice, uniform, randint
from math import sin, cos, radians

# 模拟重力
GRAVITY = 0.05
# 颜色选项(随机或者按顺序)
colors = ['red', 'blue', 'yellow', 'white', 'green', 'orange', 'purple', 'seagreen', 'indigo', 'cornflowerblue']

'''
particles 类

粒子在空中随机生成随机,变成一个圈、下坠、消失

属性:
    - id: 粒子的id
    - x, y: 粒子的坐标
    - vx, vy: 在坐标的变化速度
    - total: 总数
    - age: 粒子存在的时长
    - color: 颜色
    - cv: 画布
    - lifespan: 最高存在时长

'''


class Particle:
    def __init__(self, cv, idx, total, explosion_speed, x=0., y=0., vx=0., vy=0., size=2., color='red', lifespan=2,**kwargs):
        self.id = idx
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.initial_speed = explosion_speed
        self.vx = vx
        self.vy = vy
        self.total = total
        self.age = 0
        self.color = color
        self.cv = cv
        self.cid = self.cv.create_oval(
            x - size, y - size, x + size,
            y + size, fill=self.color)
        self.lifespan = lifespan

    def update(self, dt):
        self.age += dt

        # 粒子范围扩大
        if self.alive() and self.expand():
            move_x = cos(radians(self.id * 360 / self.total)) * self.initial_speed
            move_y = sin(radians(self.id * 360 / self.total)) * self.initial_speed
            self.cv.move(self.cid, move_x, move_y)
            self.vx = move_x / (float(dt) * 1000)

        # 以自由落体坠落
        elif self.alive():
            move_x = cos(radians(self.id * 360 / self.total))
            # we technically don't need to update x, y because move will do the jobself.cv.move(self.cid, self.vx + move_x, self.vy + GRAVITY * dt)
            self.vy += GRAVITY * dt

        # 移除超过最高时长的粒子
        elif self.cid is not None:
            cv.delete(self.cid)
            self.cid = None

    # 扩大的时间
    def expand(self):return self.age <= 1.2

    # 粒子是否在最高存在时长内
    def alive(self):return self.age <= self.lifespan


'''
循环调用保持不停
'''


def simulate(cv):
    t = time()
    explode_points = []
    wait_time = randint(10, 100)
    numb_explode = randint(6, 10)
    # 创建一个所有粒子同时扩大的二维列表
    for point in range(numb_explode):
        objects = []
        x_cordi = randint(50, 550)
        y_cordi = randint(50, 150)
        speed = uniform(0.5, 1.5)
        size = uniform(0.5, 3)
        color = choice(colors)
        explosion_speed = uniform(0.2, 1)
        total_particles = randint(10, 50)
        for i in range(1, total_particles):
            r = Particle(cv, idx=i, total=total_particles, explosion_speed=explosion_speed, x=x_cordi, y=y_cordi,
                         vx=speed, vy=speed, color=color, size=size, lifespan=uniform(0.6, 1.75))
            objects.append(r)
        explode_points.append(objects)

    total_time = .0# 1.8s内一直扩大
    while total_time < 1.8:
        sleep(0.01)
        tnew = time()
        t, dt = tnew, tnew - t
        for point in explode_points:
            for item in point:
                item.update(dt)
        cv.update()
        total_time += dt
    # 循环调用
    root.after(wait_time, simulate, cv)


def close(*ignore):"""退出程序、关闭窗口"""'''global root
    root.quit()'''


if __name__ == '__main__':
    root = tk.Tk()
    cv = tk.Canvas(root, height=400, width=600)
    # 选一个好看的背景会让效果更惊艳!
    image = Image.open("./image.jpg")
    photo = ImageTk.PhotoImage(image)

    cv.create_image(0, 0, image=photo, anchor='nw')
    cv.pack()

    root.protocol("WM_DELETE_WINDOW", close)
    root.after(100, simulate, cv)
    root.mainloop()

最终的效果:

用python来一场烟花吧-赴京书生

好了,到此为止,一场python的烟花秀结束了~

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